|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2018
|Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]|
We file an income tax return in the U.S. federal jurisdiction and a margin tax return in Texas. We received notification from the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") in November 2016 that the December 31, 2014, tax return was selected for audit. In April 2017 the audit was expanded to include the year ended December 31, 2015, to review the refund claim related to research and development activities. We received notification from the IRS in March 2018 that audit was complete and acceptance of the refund claims resulting from the Research and Development ("R&D") credit for approximately $350,000, which has now been received. We also received notification that Texas will audit our R&D credit calculations for 2014 and 2015. We are in the process of submitting additional documentation to Texas. We do not expect any changes related to the Texas audit. Tax returns for various jurisdictions remain open for examination for the years 2014 through 2017. As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively, we recognized no adjustment for uncertain tax positions or related interest and penalties.
The effective tax rate varies from the federal statutory rate of 21%, primarily as a result of state tax expense, stock based compensation and a research and development credit for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018. The effective tax rate varies from the federal statutory rate of 35% primarily as a result of state tax expense and stock option based compensation offset by the manufacturing deduction for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017. We continue to maintain a valuation allowance against certain deferred tax assets where realization is not certain.
On December 22, 2017, Public Law No. 115-97 known as the TCJA was enacted. The TCJA includes a number of changes to existing U.S. tax laws that impact the Company, most notably a reduction of the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate from a maximum of 35% to a flat 21% for tax years effective January 1, 2018. The TCJA also implements a territorial tax system, provides for a one-time deemed repatriation tax on unrepatriated foreign earnings, eliminates the alternative minimum tax ("AMT"), makes AMT credit carryforwards refundable, and permits the acceleration of depreciation for certain assets placed into service after September 27, 2017. In addition, the TJCA creates prospective changes beginning in 2018, including repeal of the domestic manufacturing deduction, acceleration of tax revenue recognition, capitalization of research and development expenditures, additional limitations on executive compensation and limitations on the deductibility of interest.
We have elected to recognize the income tax effects of the TCJA in our financial statements in accordance with Staff Accounting Bulletin 118 (SAB 118), which provides guidance for the application of ASC Topic 740 Income Taxes, in the reporting period in which the TCJA was signed into law. Under SAB 118 when a Company does not have the necessary information available, prepared, or analyzed (including computations) in reasonable detail to complete the accounting for certain income tax effects of the TCJA, it will recognize provisional amounts if a reasonable estimate can be made. If a reasonable estimate cannot be made, then no impact is recognized for the effect of the TCJA. SAB 118 permits an up to one year measurement period to finalize the measurement of the impact of the TCJA.
We have recognized the provisional tax impacts related to the acceleration of depreciation and included these amounts in our consolidated financial statements for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018. The ultimate impact may differ from these provisional amounts, possibly materially, due to, among other things, additional analysis, changes in interpretations and assumptions the we have made, additional regulatory guidance that may be issued, and actions we may take as a result of the TCJA . We did not identify items for which the income tax effects of the TCJA have not been completed, and a reasonable estimate could not be determined as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017. The federal income tax return was filed in October 2018, which resulted in net operating tax loss and business credit which were carried back to 2015 and 2016.
The entire disclosure for income taxes. Disclosures may include net deferred tax liability or asset recognized in an enterprise's statement of financial position, net change during the year in the total valuation allowance, approximate tax effect of each type of temporary difference and carryforward that gives rise to a significant portion of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets, utilization of a tax carryback, and tax uncertainties information.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef