SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
NOTE 2 - SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Principles of Consolidation – The consolidated financial statements include the balance sheets, statements of income, stockholders' equity, and cash flows of the Company, TOCCO, TC, SHR, GSPL and PEVM. Other entities which are not controlled but over which the Company has the ability to exercise significant influence such as AMAK, are accounted for using the equity method of accounting. All intercompany profits, transactions and balances have been eliminated.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Short-Term Investments - Our principal banking and short-term investing activities are with local and national financial institutions. Short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less are classified as cash equivalents.
Inventories - Finished products and feedstock are recorded at the lower of cost, determined on the last-in, first-out method (LIFO) at December 31, 2016, and first-in, first-out method (FIFO) at December 31, 2017; or market for SHR. For TC, inventory is recorded at the lower of cost or market as follows: (1) raw material cost is calculated using the weighted-average cost method and (2) product inventory cost is calculated using the specific cost method.
Trade Receivables and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts – We evaluate the collectability of our trade receivables and adequacy of the allowance for doubtful accounts based upon historical experience and any specific customer financial difficulties of which we become aware. For the year ended December 31, 2016, we increased the balance by $90,000 due to an increase in sales in countries where there is a greater risk of default and limited recourse should this occur. For the years ended December 31, 2017, and 2015, the allowance balance was not increased. We track customer balances and past due amounts to determine if customers may be having financial difficulties. This, along with historical experience and a working knowledge of each customer, helps determine accounts that should be written off. During 2016 we wrote off one account for approximately $93,000. No amounts were written off in 2017 or 2015.
Notes Receivable – We periodically make changes in or expand our custom processing units at the request of the customer. The cost to make these changes is shared by the customer. Upon completion of a project a non-interest note receivable is recorded with an imputed interest rate. Interest rate used on outstanding notes during December 31, 2017, and 2016, was 4%. The unearned interest is reflected as a discount against the note balance. The Company evaluates the collectability of notes based upon a working knowledge of the customer. The notes are receivable from custom processing customers with whom we maintain a close relationship. Thus, all amounts due under the notes receivable are considered collectible, and no allowance was recorded at December 31, 2017 and 2016.
Plant, Pipeline and Equipment - Plant, pipeline and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation is provided over the estimated service lives using the straight-line method. Gains and losses from disposition are included in operations in the period incurred. Maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. Major renewals and improvements are capitalized.
Interest costs incurred to finance expenditures during construction phase are capitalized as part of the historical cost of constructing the assets. Construction commences with the development of the design and ends when the assets are ready for use. Capitalized interest costs are included in plant, pipeline and equipment and are depreciated over the service life of the related assets.
Labor costs incurred to self-construct assets are capitalized as part of the historical cost the assets. Construction commences with the development of the design and ends when the assets are ready for use. Capitalized labor costs are included in plant, pipeline and equipment and are depreciated over the service life of the related assets.
Platinum catalyst is included in plant, pipeline and equipment at cost. Amortization of the catalyst is based upon cost less estimated salvage value of the catalyst using the straight line method over the estimated useful life (see Note 9).
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets – Goodwill represents the future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired in the acquisition of TC that are not individually identified and separately recognized. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are tested for impairment at least annually; however, these tests are performed more frequently when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset may be impaired. Impairment exists when carrying value exceeds fair value. Estimates of fair value are based on appraisals, market prices for comparable assets, or internal estimates of future net cash flows.
Definite-lived intangible assets consist of customer relationships, licenses, permits and developed technology that were acquired as part of the Acquisition of TC. The majority of these assets are being amortized using discounted estimated future cash flows over the term of the related agreements. Intangible assets associated with customer relationships are being amortized using the discounted estimated future cash flows method based upon assumed rates of annual customer attrition. We continually evaluate the reasonableness of the useful lives of these assets. Once these assets are fully amortized, they will be removed from the consolidated balance sheets.
Business Combinations and Related Business Acquisition Costs – Assets and liabilities associated with business acquisitions are recorded at fair value using the acquisition method of accounting. We allocate the purchase price of acquisitions based upon the fair value of each component which may be derived from various observable and unobservable inputs and assumptions. We may use third-party valuation specialists to assist us in this allocation. Initial purchase price allocations are preliminary and subject to revision within the measurement period, not to exceed one year from the date of acquisition. The fair value of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets are based upon the discounted cash flow method that involves inputs that are not observable in the market (Level 3). Goodwill assigned represents the amount of consideration transferred in excess of the fair value assigned to identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed.
Business acquisition costs are expensed as incurred and are reported as general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of income. We define these costs to include finder's fees, advisory, legal, accounting, valuation, and other professional consulting fees, as well as, travel associated with the evaluation and effort to acquire specific businesses.
Investment in AMAK – We account for our investment in AMAK using the equity method of accounting under which we record in income our share of AMAK's income or loss for each period. The amount recorded is also adjusted to reflect the amortization of certain differences between the basis in our investment in AMAK and our share of the net assets of AMAK as reflected in AMAK's financial statements (see Note 11).
We assess our investment in AMAK for impairment when events are identified, or there are changes in circumstances that may have an adverse effect on the fair value of the investment. We consider recoverable ore reserves, changes in commodity prices, and the amount and timing of the cash flows to be generated by the production of those reserves, as well as, recent equity transactions within AMAK.
Other Assets - Other assets include a license used in petrochemical operations, spare parts inventory and certain petrochemical assets. Beginning January 1, 2017, due to the expansion of our plant assets at SHR and TC, we began inventorying spare parts for the repair and maintenance of our plant, pipeline and equipment. Spare parts are accounted for on the first-in, first-out method (FIFO).
Long-Lived Assets Impairment - Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable based on the undiscounted net cash flows to be generated from the asset's use. The amount of the impairment loss to be recorded is calculated by the excess of the asset's carrying value over its fair value. Fair value is generally determined using a discounted cash flow analysis although other factors including the state of the economy are considered.
Revenue Recognition – Revenue is recorded when (1) the customer accepts delivery of the product and title has been transferred or when the service is performed and we have no significant obligations remaining to be performed; (2) a final understanding as to specific nature and terms of the agreed upon transaction has occurred; (3) price is fixed and determinable; and (4) collection is assured. For our product sales these criteria are generally met, and revenue is recognized, when the product is delivered or title is transferred to the customer. Sales are presented net of discounts, allowances, and sales taxes. Freight costs billed to customers are recorded as a component of revenue. For our custom processing we recognize revenue when the service has been provided to the customer.
Revenues received in advance of future sales of products or prior to the performance of services are presented as deferred revenues.
Shipping and Handling Costs - Shipping and handling costs are classified as cost of product sales and processing and are expensed as incurred.
Retirement Plan – We offer employees the benefit of participating in a 401(k) plan. We match 100% up to 6% of pay with vesting occurring over 2 years. For years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015, matching contributions of approximately $1,412,000, $1,195,000, and $1,116,000, respectively were made on behalf of employees.
Environmental Liabilities - Remediation costs are accrued based on estimates of known environmental remediation exposure. Ongoing environmental compliance costs, including maintenance and monitoring costs, are expensed as incurred.
Other Liabilities – We periodically make changes in or expand our custom processing units at the request of the customer. The cost to make these changes is shared by the customer. Upon completion of a project a note receivable and a deferred liability are recorded to recover the project costs which are then capitalized. At times instead of a note receivable being established, the customer pays an upfront cost. The amortization of other liabilities is recorded as a reduction to depreciation expense over the life of the contract with the customer. As of December 31 of each year, depreciation expense was offset and reduced by approximately $0.8 million for 2017, $1.0 million for 2016, and $1.0 million for 2015.
Net Income Per Share - We compute basic income per common share based on the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted income per common share is computed based on the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding plus the number of additional common shares that would have been outstanding if potential dilutive common shares, consisting of stock options, unvested restricted stock units, and shares which could be issued upon conversion of debt, had been issued (see Note 19).
Foreign Currency - The functional currency for the Company and each of the Company's subsidiaries is the US dollar (USD). Transaction gains or losses as a result of transactions denominated and settled in currencies other than the USD are reflected in the statements of income as foreign exchange transaction gains or losses. We do not employ any practices to minimize foreign currency risks. The functional and reporting currency of AMAK is the Saudi Riyal (SR). In June 1986 the SR was officially pegged to the USD at a fixed exchange rate of 1 USD to 3.75 SR; therefore, we translate SR into our reporting currency of the USD for income statement and balance sheet purposes using the fixed exchange rate. As of December 31, 2017, 2016 and 2015, foreign currency translation adjustments were not significant.
Management Estimates - The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Significant estimates include allowance for doubtful accounts receivable and inventory obsolescence; assessment of impairment of our long-lived assets, goodwill, intangible assets and investments, financial contracts, litigation liabilities, post-retirement benefit obligations, guarantee obligations, environmental liabilities, income taxes and deferred tax valuation allowances. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
Share-Based Compensation – We recognize share-based compensation of stock options granted based upon the fair value of options on the grant date using the Black-Scholes pricing model (see Note 16). Share-based compensation expense recognized during the period is based on the fair value of the portion of share-based payments awards that is ultimately expected to vest. Share-based compensation expense recognized in the consolidated statements of income for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015 includes compensation expense based on the estimated grant date fair value for awards that are ultimately expected to vest, and accordingly has been reduced for estimated forfeitures. Estimated forfeitures at the time of grant are revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates.
Guarantees – We may enter into agreements which contain features that meet the definition of a guarantee under FASB ASC 460 "Guarantees" (see Note 15). These arrangements create two types of obligations:
Derivatives – We record derivative instruments as either an asset or liability measured at fair value. Changes in the derivative instrument's fair value are recognized currently in earnings unless specific hedge accounting criteria are met. Special accounting for qualifying hedges allows a derivative instrument's gains and losses to offset related results on the hedged item in the income statement, to the extent effective, and requires that a company must formally document, designate and assess the effectiveness of transactions that receive hedge accounting.
Income Taxes – Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. The Company maintains a valuation allowance for a deferred tax asset when it is deemed to be more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax asset will not be realized.
Our estimate of the potential outcome of any uncertain tax issues is subject to management's assessment of relevant risks, facts, and circumstances existing at that time. We use a more likely than not threshold for financial statement recognition and measurement of tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. To the extent that our assessment of such tax position changes, the change in estimate is recorded in the period in which the determination is made. We report tax-related interest and penalties as a component of income tax expense.
On December 22, 2017, Public Law No. 115-97 known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) was enacted. The TCJA includes a number of changes to existing U.S. tax laws that impact the Company, most notably a reduction of the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate from a maximum of 35 percent to a flat 21 percent for tax years effective January 1, 2018. The TCJA also implements a territorial tax system, provides for a one-time deemed repatriation tax on unrepatriated foreign earnings, eliminates the alternative minimum tax (AMT), makes AMT credit carryforwards refundable, and permits the acceleration of depreciation for certain assets placed into service after September 27, 2017. In addition the TJCA creates prospective changes beginning in 2018, including repeal of the domestic manufacturing deduction, acceleration of tax revenue recognition, capitalization of research and development expenditures, additional limitations on executive compensation and limitations on the deductibility of interest.
The Company has elected to recognize the income tax effects of the TCJA in its financial statements in accordance with Staff Accounting Bulletin 118 (SAB 118), which provides guidance for the application of ASC Topic 740 Income Taxes, in the reporting period in which the TCJA was signed into law. Under SAB 118 when a Company does not have the necessary information available, prepared, or analyzed (including computations) in reasonable detail to complete the accounting for certain income tax effects of the TCJA it will recognize provisional amounts if a reasonable estimate can be made. If a reasonable estimate cannot be made then no impact is recognized for the effect of the TCJA. SAB 118 permits an up to one year measurement period to finalize the measurement of the impact of the TCJA.
Subsequent Events – The Company has evaluated subsequent events through March 12, 2018, the date that the consolidated financial statements were approved by management.
New Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014 the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers ("ASU 2014-09"). ASU 2014-09 supersedes the revenue recognition requirements of FASB Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 605, Revenue Recognition and most industry-specific guidance throughout the Accounting Standards Codification, resulting in the creation of FASB ASC Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. ASU 2014-09 requires entities to recognize revenue in a way that depicts the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. This ASU provides alternative methods of retrospective adoption and is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2017. The Company completed its assessment of the impact of the adoption of ASU 2014-09 across all revenue streams. This included reviewing current accounting policies and practices to identify potential differences that would result from applying the requirements under the new standard. We completed contract reviews and validated results of applying the new revenue guidance. We adopted ASU 2014-09 on January 1, 2018, using the modified retrospective approach which will be fully presented in our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the three months ended March 31, 2018. Based on the completed analysis, we determined that the adjustment will not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
In November 2015 the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-17, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes. The new standard eliminates the current requirement for organizations to present deferred tax liabilities and assets as current and noncurrent in a classified balance sheet. Instead, organizations will be required to classify all deferred tax assets and liabilities as noncurrent. The amendments are effective for financial statements issued for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods. The Company implemented ASU 2015-17 by classifying all of it deferred tax assets (liabilities) as noncurrent on the December 31, 2017, and 2016 Balance Sheet, see Note 17.
In February 2016 the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing all lease transactions (with terms in excess of 12 months) on the balance sheet as a lease liability and a right-of-use asset (as defined). The ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with earlier application permitted. Upon adoption, the lessee will apply the new standard retrospectively to all periods presented or retrospectively using a cumulative effect adjustment in the year of adoption. The Company has several lease agreements for which the amendments will require the Company to recognize a lease liability to make lease payments and a right-of-use asset which will represent its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. The Company is currently reviewing the amendments to ensure it is fully compliant by the adoption date and does not expect to early adopt. As permitted by the amendments, the Company is anticipating electing an accounting policy to not recognize lease assets and lease liabilities for leases with a term of twelve months or less. The Company is currently in the process of fully evaluating the amendments and will subsequently implement new processes. In addition, the Company will change its current accounting policies to comply with the amendments with such changes as mentioned above.
In March 2016 the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which will reduce complexity in accounting standards related to share-based payment transactions, including, among others, (1) accounting for income taxes, (2) classification of excess tax benefits on the statement of cash flow, (3) forfeitures, and (4) statutory tax withholding requirements. The ASU is effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods. The Company implemented the amendments as of January 1, 2017. The stock based compensation plan has not historically generated material amounts of excess tax benefits or deficiencies and, therefore, there is no material change in the Company's financial position or results of operation, as a result of adopting this Update. For additional information on the stock-based compensation plan, see Note 16.
In January 2017 the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles – Goodwill and Other (Topic 350). The amendments in ASU 2017-04 simplify the measurement of goodwill by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Instead, under these amendments, an entity should perform its annual, or interim, goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An entity should recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit's fair value; however, the loss should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. The amendments are effective for public business entities for the first interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017.The amendments also eliminate the requirements for any reporting unit with a zero or negative carrying amount to perform a qualitative assessment and, if it fails that qualitative test, to perform Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test. An entity still has the option to perform the qualitative assessment for a reporting unit to determine if the quantitative impairment test is necessary. The Company has goodwill from prior business combination and performs an annual impairment test or more frequently if changes or circumstances occur that would more-likely-than-not reduce the fair value of the reporting unit below its carrying value. During the year ended December 31, 2017, the Company performed its impairment assessment and determined the fair value of the aggregated reporting units exceed the carrying value, such that the Company's goodwill was not considered impaired. Although the Company cannot anticipate future goodwill impairment assessments, based on the most recent assessment, it is unlikely that an impairment amount would need to be calculated and, therefore, the Company does not anticipate a material impact from these amendments to the Company's financial position and results of operations. The current accounting policies and processes are not anticipated to change, except for the elimination of the Step 2 analysis.
In February 2018 the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, Income Statement — Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income. ASU 2018-02 was issued to address the income tax accounting treatment of the stranded tax effects within other comprehensive income due to the prohibition of backward tracing due to an income tax rate change that was initially recorded in other comprehensive income due to the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) on December 22, 2017, which changed the Company's income tax rate from 35% to 21%. The amendments to the ASU changed US GAAP whereby an entity may elect to reclassify the stranded tax effect from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings. The amendments of the ASU may be adopted in total or in part using a full retrospective or modified retrospective method. The amendments of the ASU are effective for periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is assessing the effect of ASU 2018-02 on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the general note to the financial statements for the reporting entity which may include, descriptions of the basis of presentation, business description, significant accounting policies, consolidations, reclassifications, new pronouncements not yet adopted and changes in accounting principles.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef