|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2019
|Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]|
The difference between the effective tax rate in income tax expense and the Federal statutory rate of 21% for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, and 35% for the year ended December 31, 2017, is as follows:
Permanent differences are primarily due to the Federal manufacturer's deduction, in applicable year 2017, research and development credit, and stock-based compensation.
On December 22, 2017, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 ("TCJA") was signed into law making significant changes to the Internal Revenue Code. The changes as a result of the TCJA, which had the most significant impact on the Company's federal income taxes are as follows:
Reduction of the U.S. Corporate Income Tax Rate - The Company uses the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax basis. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to reverse. As a result of the reduction in the U.S. corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21% under the TCJA, the Company revalued its ending net deferred tax liabilities at December 31, 2017.
Acceleration of Depreciation - The Company recognized a provisional reduction to net deferred tax assets attributable to the accelerated depreciation for certain assets placed into service after September 27, 2017. The provisional estimate was finalized including consideration of TCJA on long term construction projects.
The Company elected to recognize the income tax effects of the TCJA in its financial statements in accordance with Staff Accounting Bulletin 118 (SAB 118), which provides guidance for the application of ASC Topic 740 Income Taxes, in the reporting period in which the TCJA was signed into law. During the fourth quarter of 2018, we completed our accounting for the Tax Act based on the current regulatory guidance available at the end of the SAB 118 measurement period and recorded no material net adjustments to our provisional estimate.
Tax effects of temporary differences that give rise to significant portions of federal and state deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities were as follows:
In connection with the proceeds received from AMAK in connection with its share repurchase program (See Note 6), the Company accrued a deferred tax asset (foreign tax credit) and the corresponding liability for the Saudi Arabian tax which was settled during 2019.
We provided a valuation allowance in 2019 and 2018 against certain deferred tax assets because of uncertainties regarding their realization. As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, we have federal income tax net operating losses ("NOLs") carryforwards of $56.6 million and $43.2 million, respectively. The NOLs were created after the enactment of TCJA and therefore do not expire but may offset only 80% of taxable income in an annual period.
We file an income tax return in the U.S. federal jurisdiction and a margin tax return in Texas. We received notification from the Internal Revenue Service ("IRS") in February 2020 on the selection of our December 31, 2017 tax return for audit. In prior years, we received notification that Texas selected our R&D credit calculations for 2014 and 2015 for audit. The state of Texas had suspended their examination while they comprehensively reviewed their audit procedures for consistency. During the fourth quarter of 2019, we received notice that Texas had completed their review of their procedures and initiated additional requests for information. We do not expect any changes related to the Federal or Texas audits. Our federal and Texas tax returns remain open for examination for the years 2016 through 2019.
We recognized no adjustment for uncertain tax positions. As of December 31, 2019, and 2018, no interest or penalties related to uncertain tax positions had been accrued.
The entire disclosure for income taxes. Disclosures may include net deferred tax liability or asset recognized in an enterprise's statement of financial position, net change during the year in the total valuation allowance, approximate tax effect of each type of temporary difference and carryforward that gives rise to a significant portion of deferred tax liabilities and deferred tax assets, utilization of a tax carryback, and tax uncertainties information.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef