AMAK SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2019
|Schedule of Equity Method Investments [Line Items]|
|AMAK SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Principles of Consolidation – The consolidated financial statements include the balance sheets, statements of operations, stockholders' equity, and cash flows of the Company, TOCCO, TC, SHR, GSPL and PEVM. Other entities which are not controlled but over which the Company has the ability to exercise significant influence such as AMAK, are accounted for using the equity method of accounting. All intercompany profits, transactions and balances have been eliminated.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Short-Term Investments – Our principal banking and short-term investing activities are with local and national financial institutions. Short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less are classified as cash equivalents.
Inventories – Finished products and feedstock are recorded at the lower of cost, determined on the first-in, first-out method (FIFO), or market for SHR. For TC, inventory is recorded at the lower of cost or market as follows: (1) raw material cost is calculated using the weighted-average cost method and (2) product inventory cost is calculated using the specific cost method.
Trade Receivables and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts – We evaluate the collectability of our trade receivables and adequacy of the allowance for doubtful accounts based upon historical experience and any specific customer financial difficulties of which we become aware. For the year ended December 31, 2019, we decreased the balance by $23,000 due to collections of previously allowed for receivables. For the year ended December 31, 2018, we increased the balance by $152,000 due to concerns regarding collectability for a specific customer. For the year ended December 31, 2017, the allowance balance was not adjusted. We track customer balances and past due amounts to determine if customers may be having financial difficulties. This, along with historical experience and a working knowledge of each customer, helps determine accounts that should be written off. No amounts were written off in 2019, 2018 or 2017.
Discontinued Operations – Assets that are sold or classified as held for sale are classified as discontinued operations provided that the disposal represents a strategic shift that has (or will have) a major effect on our operations and financial results (e.g., a disposal of a major geographical area, a major line of business, a major equity method investment or other major parts of an entity).
Notes Receivable – We periodically make changes in or expand our custom processing units at the request of the customer. The cost to make these changes is shared by the customer. Upon completion of a project a non-interest note receivable is recorded with an imputed interest rate. There were no notes receivable outstanding as of December 31, 2019 or 2018. The unearned interest was reflected as a discount against the note balance. The Company evaluates the collectability of notes based upon a working knowledge of the customer. The notes are receivable from custom processing customers with whom we maintain a close relationship.
Plant, Pipeline and Equipment – Plant, pipeline and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation is provided over the estimated service lives using the straight-line method. Gains and losses from disposition are included in operations in the period incurred. Maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. Major renewals and improvements are capitalized.
Interest costs incurred to finance expenditures during construction phase are capitalized as part of the historical cost of constructing the assets. Construction commences with the development of the design and ends when the assets are ready for use. Capitalized interest costs are included in plant, pipeline and equipment and are depreciated over the service life of the related assets.
Labor costs incurred to self-construct assets are capitalized as part of the historical cost the assets. Construction commences with the development of the design and ends when the assets are ready for use. Capitalized labor costs are included in plant, pipeline and equipment and are depreciated over the service life of the related assets.
Platinum catalyst is included in plant, pipeline and equipment at cost. Amortization of the catalyst is based upon cost less estimated salvage value of the catalyst using the straight line method over the estimated useful life (see Note 8).
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets – Goodwill represents the future economic benefits arising from other assets acquired in the acquisition of TC that are not individually identified and separately recognized. Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are tested for impairment at least annually; however, these tests are performed more frequently when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset may be impaired. Impairment exists when carrying value exceeds fair value. Estimates of fair value are based on appraisals, market prices for comparable assets, or internal estimates of future net cash flows.
Definite-lived intangible assets consist of customer relationships, licenses, permits and developed technology that were acquired as part of the acquisition of TC. The majority of these assets are being amortized using discounted estimated future cash flows over the term of the related agreements. Intangible assets associated with customer relationships are being amortized using the discounted estimated future cash flows method based upon assumed rates of annual customer attrition. We continually evaluate the reasonableness of the useful lives of these assets. Once these assets are fully amortized, they will be removed from the consolidated balance sheets.
Business Combinations and Related Business Acquisition Costs – Assets and liabilities associated with business acquisitions are recorded at fair value using the acquisition method of accounting. We allocate the purchase price of acquisitions based upon the fair value of each component which may be derived from various observable and unobservable inputs and assumptions. We may use third-party valuation specialists to assist us in this allocation. Initial purchase price allocations are preliminary and subject to revision within the measurement period, not to exceed one year from the date of acquisition. The fair value of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets are based upon the discounted cash flow method that involves inputs that are not observable in the market (Level 3). Goodwill assigned represents the amount of consideration transferred in excess of the fair value assigned to identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed.
Business acquisition costs are expensed as incurred and are reported as general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of income. We define these costs to include finder's fees, advisory, legal, accounting, valuation, and other professional consulting fees, as well as, travel associated with the evaluation and effort to acquire specific businesses.
Investment in AMAK – We account for our investment in AMAK using the equity method of accounting under which we record in income our share of AMAK's income or loss for each period. The amount recorded is also adjusted to reflect the amortization of certain differences between the basis in our investment in AMAK and our share of the net assets of AMAK as reflected in AMAK's financial statements (see Note 6). Any proceeds received from or payments made to AMAK are recorded as decreases or increases in the balance of our investment.
We assess our investment in AMAK for impairment when events are identified, or there are changes in circumstances that may have an adverse effect on the fair value of the investment. In making our assessment we consider operating results, recoverable ore reserves, changes in mineral prices.
Other Assets – Other assets include a license used in specialty petrochemicals operations, spare parts inventory, insurance receivables and certain specialty petrochemicals assets. Beginning January 1, 2017, due to the expansion of our plant assets at SHR and TC, we began inventorying spare parts for the repair and maintenance of our plant, pipeline and equipment. Spare parts are accounted for using FIFO.
Long-Lived Assets Impairment – Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable based on the undiscounted net cash flows to be generated from the asset's use. The amount of the impairment loss to be recorded is calculated by the excess of the asset's carrying value over its fair value. Fair value is generally determined using a discounted cash flow analysis although other factors including the state of the economy are considered.
Revenue Recognition – The Company adopted Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 606 ("ASC 606"), Revenue from Contracts with Customers, and its amendments with a date of the initial application of January 1, 2018. As a result, the Company has changed its accounting policy for revenue recognition as detailed below. ASC 606 outlines a single comprehensive model for an entity to use in accounting for revenue arising from all contracts with customers, except where revenues are in scope of another accounting standard. ASC 606 superseded the revenue recognition requirements in ASC Topic 605, "Revenue Recognition", and most industry specific guidance. ASC Topic 606 sets forth a five-step model for determining when and how revenue is recognized. Under the model, an entity is required to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to a customer at an amount reflecting the consideration it expects to receive in exchange for those goods and services. ASC 606 also requires certain additional revenue-related disclosures.
The Company applied the modified retrospective approach under ASC 606 which allows for the cumulative effect of adopting the new guidance on the date of initial application. Use of the modified retrospective approach means the Company's comparative periods prior to initial application are not restated. The initial application was applied to all contracts at the date of the initial application. The Company has determined that the adjustments using the modified retrospective approach did not have a material impact on the date of the initial application along with the disclosure of the effect on prior periods.
Beginning on January 1, 2018, revenue is measured based on a consideration specified in a contract with a customer. The Company recognizes revenue when it satisfies a performance obligation by transferring control over a product or service to a customer. In evaluating when a customer has control of the asset we primarily consider whether the transfer of legal title and physical delivery has occurred, whether the customer has significant risks and rewards of ownership, and whether the customer has accepted delivery and a right to payment exists. Taxes assessed by a governmental authority that are both imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction, that are collected by the Company from a customer, are excluded from revenue. Shipping and handling costs associated with outbound freight after control over a product has transferred to a customer are accounted for as a fulfillment cost and are included in cost of product sales and processing. The Company does not offer material rights of return or service-type warranties.
For the year ended December 31, 2017 the Company recognized revenue according to FASB ASC Topic 605 ("ASC 605"), "Revenue Recognition", when: (1) the customer accepted delivery of the product and title had been transferred or when the service was performed and the Company had no significant obligations remaining to be performed; (2) a final understanding as to specific nature and terms of the agreed upon transaction had occurred; (3) price was fixed and determinable; and (4) collection was assured. Product sales generally met these criteria, and revenue was recognized, when the product was delivered or title was transferred to the customer. Sales revenue was presented net of discounts, allowances, and sales taxes. Freight costs billed to customers were recorded as a component of revenue. Revenues received in advance of future sales of products or prior to the performance of services were presented as deferred revenues. Shipping and handling costs were classified as cost of product sales and processing and were expensed as incurred.
Nature of goods and services
The following is a description of principal activities – separated by reportable segments – from which the Company generates its revenue. For more detailed information about reportable segments, disaggregation of revenues, and contract balance disclosures, see Note 17.
Specialty Petrochemicals segment
The specialty petrochemicals segment of the Company produces eight high purity hydrocarbons and other petroleum based products including isopentane, normal pentane, isohexane and hexane. These products are used in the production of polyethylene, packaging, polypropylene, expandable polystyrene, poly-iso/urethane foams, crude oil from the Canadian tar sands, and in the catalyst support industry. SHR's specialty petrochemicals products are typically transported to customers by rail car, tank truck, iso-container and ship.
Product Sales – The Company sells individual (distinct) products to its customers on a stand-alone basis (point-of-sale) without any further integration. There is no significant modification of any one or more products sold to fulfill another promised product or service within any of the Company's product sale transactions. The amount of consideration received for product sales is stated within the executed invoice with the customer. Payment is typically due and collected 30 to 60 days subsequent to point of sale.
Processing Fees – The Company's services consist of processing customer supplied feedstocks into custom products including, if requested, services for forming, packaging, and arranging shipping. Pursuant to Tolling Agreements the customer retains title to the feedstocks and processed products. The performance obligation in each Tolling Agreement transaction is the processing of customer provided feedstocks into custom products and is satisfied over time. The amount of consideration received for product sales is stated within the executed invoice with the customer. Payment is typically due and collected within 30 days subsequent to point of sale.
Specialty Waxes segment
The specialty waxes segment of the Company manufactures and sells specialty polyethylene and poly alpha olefin waxes and also provides custom processing services for customers.
Product Sales – The Company sells individual (distinct) products to its customers on a stand-alone basis (point-of-sale) without any further integration. There is no significant modification of any one or more products sold to fulfill another promised product or service within any of the Company's product sale transactions. The amount of consideration received for product sales is stated within the executed invoice with the customer. Payment is typically due and collected within 30 days subsequent to point of sale.
Processing Fees – The Company's promised services consist of processing customer supplied feedstocks into custom products including, if requested, services for forming, packaging, and arranging shipping. Pursuant to Tolling Agreements and Purchase Order Arrangements, the customer typically retains title to the feedstocks and processed products. The performance obligation in each Tolling Agreement transaction and Purchase Order Arrangement is the processing of customer provided feedstocks into custom products and is satisfied over time. The amount of consideration received for product sales is stated within the executed invoice with the customer. Payment is typically due and collected within 30 days subsequent to point of sale.
Shipping and Handling Costs – Shipping and handling costs are classified as cost of product sales and processing and are expensed as incurred.
Retirement Plan – We offer employees the benefit of participating in a 401(k) plan. We match 100% up to 6% of pay with vesting occurring over 2 years. For years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, matching contributions of approximately $1,321,000, $1,502,000, and $1,412,000, respectively, were made on behalf of employees.
Environmental Liabilities – Remediation costs are accrued based on estimates of known environmental remediation exposure. Ongoing environmental compliance costs, including maintenance and monitoring costs, are expensed as incurred.
Other Liabilities – We periodically make changes in or expand our custom processing units at the request of the customer. The cost to make these changes is shared by the customer. Upon completion of a project a note receivable and a deferred liability are recorded to recover the project costs which are then capitalized. At times instead of a note receivable being established, the customer pays an upfront cost. The amortization of other liabilities is recorded as a reduction to depreciation expense over the life of the contract with the customer. As of December 31 of each year, depreciation expense was offset and reduced by approximately $0.8 million, $0.8 million, and $0.8 million, for 2019, 2018, and 2017, respectively.
Net Income Per Share – We compute basic income per common share based on the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted income per common share is computed based on the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding plus the number of additional common shares that would have been outstanding if potential dilutive common shares, consisting of stock options, unvested restricted stock units, and shares which could be issued upon conversion of debt, had been issued (see Note 18).
Foreign Currency – The functional currency for the Company and each of the Company's subsidiaries is the US dollar (USD). Transaction gains or losses as a result of transactions denominated and settled in currencies other than the USD are reflected in the statements of income as foreign exchange transaction gains or losses. We do not employ any practices to minimize foreign currency risks. The functional and reporting currency of AMAK is the Saudi Riyal (SR). In June 1986 the SR was officially pegged to the USD at a fixed exchange rate of 1 USD to 3.75 SR; therefore, we translate SR into our reporting currency of the USD for income statement and balance sheet purposes using the fixed exchange rate. As of December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, foreign currency translation adjustments were not significant.
Management Estimates – The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Significant estimates include allowance for doubtful accounts receivable and inventory obsolescence; assessment of impairment of our long-lived assets, goodwill, intangible assets and investments, litigation liabilities, post-retirement benefit obligations, guarantee obligations, environmental liabilities, income taxes and deferred tax valuation allowances. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
Share-Based Compensation – We recognize share-based compensation of stock options granted based upon the fair value of options on the grant date using the Black-Scholes pricing model (see Note 15). Share-based compensation expense recognized during the period is based on the fair value of the portion of share-based payments awards that is ultimately expected to vest. Share-based compensation expense recognized in the consolidated statements of operations for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017 includes compensation expense based on the estimated grant date fair value for awards that are ultimately expected to vest, and accordingly has been reduced for estimated forfeitures. Estimated forfeitures at the time of grant are revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates.
Guarantees – We may enter into agreements which contain features that meet the definition of a guarantee under FASB ASC 460 "Guarantees" (see Note 14). These arrangements create two types of obligations:
Fair Value – The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, trade receivables, taxes receivable, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, and other liabilities approximate fair value due to the immediate or short-term maturity of these financial instruments. The fair value of variable rate long term debt and notes payable reflect recent market transactions and approximate carrying value. We used other observable inputs that would qualify as Level 2 inputs to make our assessment of the approximate fair value of our cash and cash equivalents, trade receivables, taxes receivable, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, other liabilities, notes payable and variable rate long term debt. The fair value of the derivative instruments are described below.
We measure fair value by ASC Topic 820 Fair Value. ASC Topic 820 defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value, and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. ASC Topic 820 applies to reported balances that are required or permitted to be measured at fair value under existing accounting pronouncements; accordingly, the standard amends numerous accounting pronouncements but does not require any new fair value measurements of reported balances. ASC Topic 820 emphasizes that fair value, among other things, is based on exit price versus entry price, should include assumptions about risk such as nonperformance risk in liability fair values, and is a market-based measurement, not an entity-specific measurement. When considering the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, ASC Topic 820 establishes a fair value hierarchy that distinguishes between market participant assumptions based on market data obtained from sources independent of the reporting entity (observable inputs that are classified within Levels 1 and 2 of the hierarchy) and the reporting entity's own assumptions about market participant assumptions (unobservable inputs classified within Level 3 of the hierarchy). The fair value hierarchy prioritizes inputs used to measure fair value into three broad levels.
In instances where the determination of the fair value measurement is based on inputs from different levels of the fair value hierarchy, the level in the fair value hierarchy within which the entire fair value measurement falls is based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety. Our assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires judgment and considers factors specific to the asset or liability.
Derivatives – We record derivative instruments as either an asset or liability measured at fair value. Changes in the derivative instrument's fair value are recognized currently in earnings unless specific hedge accounting criteria are met. Special accounting for qualifying hedges allows a derivative instrument's gains and losses to offset related results on the hedged item in the income statement, to the extent effective, and requires that a company must formally document, designate and assess the effectiveness of transactions that receive hedge accounting.
Income Taxes – Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. The Company maintains a valuation allowance for a deferred tax asset when it is deemed to be more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax asset will not be realized.
Our estimate of the potential outcome of any uncertain tax issues is subject to management's assessment of relevant risks, facts, and circumstances existing at that time. We use a more likely than not threshold for financial statement recognition and measurement of tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. To the extent that our assessment of such tax position changes, the change in estimate is recorded in the period in which the determination is made. We report tax-related interest and penalties as a component of income tax expense.
On December 22, 2017, Public Law No. 115-97 known as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) was enacted. The TCJA included a number of changes to existing U.S. tax laws that impact the Company, most notably a reduction of the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate from a maximum of 35 percent to a flat 21 percent for tax years effective January 1, 2018. In addition the TJCA created prospective changes beginning in 2018, including repeal of the domestic manufacturing deduction, acceleration of tax revenue recognition, capitalization of research and development expenditures, additional limitations on executive compensation and limitations on the deductibility of interest.
Reclassifications – Certain reclassifications have been made to prior year balances to conform with the current year presentation.
Subsequent Events – The Company has evaluated subsequent events through March 13, 2020, the date that the consolidated financial statements were approved by management. See Notes 6 and 16.
Accounting Standards Adopted in 2019
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). This update increased transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet and disclosing key information about leasing arrangements. This update was effective for annual and interim reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption was permitted. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-11, Targeted Improvements to ASC 842, Leases. ASU 2018-11 provided entities with an alternative modified transition method to elect not to recast the comparative periods presented when adopting ASC 842. The new standard provided a number of optional practical expedients in transition. The Company elected: (1) the ‘package of practical expedients’, which permitted it not to reassess under the new standard its prior conclusions about lease identification, lease classification, and initial direct costs and (2) the use-of-hindsight. In addition, the new standard provided practical expedients for an entity’s ongoing accounting that the Company made, such as the (1) the election for certain classes of underlying asset to not separate non-lease components from lease components and (2) the election for short-term lease recognition exemption for all leases that qualify. The Company adopted ASU 842 as of January 1, 2019, using the alternative modified transition method.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting. ASU 2018-07 simplifies the accounting for share-based payments to nonemployees by aligning it with the accounting for share-based payments to employees, with certain exceptions. The Company adopted this ASU on January 1, 2019 and it did not have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-04, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other (Topic 350). The amendment simplifies the measurement of goodwill by eliminating Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Instead, under these amendments, an entity should perform its annual, or interim, goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. An entity should recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit's fair value; however, the loss should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. The amendments are effective for public business entities for the first interim and annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2019. Early adoption is permitted for interim or annual goodwill impairment tests performed on testing dates after January 1, 2017. The amendment also eliminates the requirements for any reporting unit with a zero or negative carrying amount to perform a qualitative assessment and, if it fails that qualitative test, to perform Step 2 of the goodwill impairment test. An entity still has the option to perform the qualitative assessment for a reporting unit to determine if the quantitative impairment test is necessary. The Company elected to early adopt this ASU on January 1, 2019. See Note 10 for a discussion of the results of our goodwill impairment testing.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820) - Disclosure Framework - Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, which is designed to improve the effectiveness of disclosures by removing, modifying and adding disclosures related to fair value measurements. ASU No. 2018-13 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and the ASU allows for early adoption in any interim period after issuance of the update. The adoption of this ASU is not expected to have a significant impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326), to require the measurement of expected credit losses for financial instruments held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions and reasonable forecasts and applies to all financial assets, including trade receivables. The main objective of this ASU is to provide financial statement users with more decision-useful information about the expected credit losses on financial instruments and other commitments to extend credit held by a reporting entity at each reporting date. ASU No. 2016-13 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and the ASU allows for early adoption as of the beginning of an interim or annual reporting period beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company does not expect the adoption of this ASU to have a significant impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740) - Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. The amendments in this update simplify the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions and clarifying certain requirements regarding franchise taxes, goodwill, consolidated tax expenses, and annual effective tax rate calculations. The ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, and early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently assessing the impact of this ASU will have on its consolidated financial statements.
|Schedule of Equity Method Investments [Line Items]|
|AMAK SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The accompanying financial statements have been prepared using U.S. generally accepted accounting principles. The following is a summary of our significant accounting policies:
Cash and cash equivalents
We consider all highly-liquid investments purchased with an original maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
We evaluate the collectability of our accounts receivable and the adequacy of the allowance for doubtful accounts based upon historical experience and any specific customer financial difficulties of which the Company becomes aware. During the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017, we sold our concentrates and doré pursuant to sales contracts with primarily one customer. No amounts have been written off for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018, and 2017. In addition, we determined that an allowance for doubtful accounts was not necessary at December 31, 2019 and 2018.
The components of inventories include mill stockpiles, precious metal doré, chemicals, and mining supplies. Inventories are stated at the lower of weighted-average cost or market. Costs of mill stockpiles inventory include labor and benefits, supplies, energy, depreciation, depletion, amortization, and other necessary costs incurred with the extraction and processing of ore. Corporate general and administrative costs are not included in inventory costs.
Because it is generally impracticable to determine the minerals contained in mill stockpiles by physical count, reasonable estimation methods are employed. The quantity of material delivered to the mill stockpiles is based on surveyed volumes of mined material and daily production records. Expected mineral recovery rates from the mill stockpiles are determined by various metallurgical testing methods.
Property and equipment
Property and equipment is carried at cost less accumulated depreciation. Expenditures for replacements and improvements are capitalized. Costs related to periodic maintenance are expensed as incurred. Depletion of the mining assets is determined using the unit-of-production method based on total estimated proven and probable reserves. Depletion and amortization using the unit-of-production method is recorded upon extraction of the ore, at which time it is allocated to inventory cost and then included as a component of cost of goods sold. Other assets are depreciated on a straight-line basis over their estimated useful lives ranging from 3 to 20 years.
Borrowing costs that are directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of assets are capitalized as part of the cost of those assets. Assets under construction are capitalized in the construction in progress account. Upon completion, the cost of the related asset is transferred to the appropriate category of property and equipment.
Mineral exploration costs, as well as drilling and other costs incurred for the purpose of converting mineral resources to proven and probable reserves or identifying new mineral resources are charged to expense as incurred. Development costs are capitalized beginning after proven and probable reserves have been established. Development costs include costs incurred in mine pre-production activities undertaken to gain access to proven and probable reserves, including shafts, drifts, ramps, permanent excavations, infrastructure and removal of overburden. These costs are deferred net of the proceeds from the sale of any production during the development period and then amortized using an estimated unit-of-production method. If a mine is no longer considered economical, the accumulated costs are charged to the statement of operations in the year in which the determination is made.
We review and evaluate our long-lived assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable. Long-lived assets are evaluated for impairment under the two-step model. When events or circumstance suggest impairment of long-lived assets, estimated undiscounted future net cash flows are calculated using future estimated commodity prices, proven and probable reserves, and estimated net proceeds from the disposition of assets on retirement, less operating, sustaining capital, and reclamation costs. If it is determined that an impairment exists, an impairment loss is measured as the amount by which the asset carrying value exceeds its fair value. Fair value is generally determined using valuation techniques such as estimated future cash flows. Because the cash flows used to assess recoverability of our long-lived assets and measure fair value of our mining operations require us to make several estimates and assumptions that are subject to risk and uncertainty, changes in these estimates and assumptions could result in the impairment of our long-lived asset values.
Based on our evaluation, we recorded no impairment losses during the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017.
Employee end-of-service benefits are accrued for the benefit of employees under the terms and conditions of Saudi Labor Law and Regulations and their employment contracts. End-of-service indemnities are provided for and accrued in the financial statements based on the respective employees' salaries and length of service.
Our functional currency is the Saudi Riyal (SR). In June 1986, the Saudi Riyal was officially pegged to the U.S. Dollar at a fixed exchange rate of 1 U.S. Dollar to 3.75 riyals. Foreign currency transactions are translated into Saudi Riyals at the rates of exchange prevailing at the time of the transactions. Monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies at the balance sheet date are translated at the exchange rates prevailing at that date. Any gains and losses from settlement and translation of foreign currency transactions are included in the statement of operations. There were no material foreign-currency exchange gains or losses or translation adjustments during the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017.
We periodically lease operating equipment, facilities, and office buildings. Rentals payable under operating leases are charged to the statements of operations on a straight-line basis over the term of the relevant lease. For any capital leases, the present value of future minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease is reflected as an asset and a liability in the balance sheet. Amounts due within one year are classified as short-term liabilities and the remaining balance as long-term liabilities. Finance charges are charged to the statement of operations.
Operating lease expense amounted to approximately SR4,015,000, SR1,619,000 and SR1,454,000 for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Environmental costs are expensed or capitalized, depending upon their future economic benefits. Accruals for such expenditures are recorded when it is probable that obligations have been incurred and the costs can reasonably be estimated. Ongoing compliance costs are expensed as incurred.
Asset retirement obligations and costs
We record the fair value of our estimated asset retirement obligations (AROs) associated with tangible long-lived assets in the period in which the obligation is incurred. AROs associated with long-lived assets are those for which there is a legal obligation to settle under various laws, statues, or regulations. These obligations, which are initially estimated based on discounted cash flow estimates, are accreted to full value over time through charges to cost of revenues. In addition, asset retirement costs (ARCs) are capitalized as part of the related asset’s carrying value and are depreciated (primarily on a unit-of-production basis) over the asset’s respective useful life.
Asset retirement obligations and costs - continued
Our AROs consist primarily of costs associated with mine reclamation and closure activities and are included in deferred mine closure costs on the accompanying balance sheets. At least annually, we review our ARO estimates for changes in the projected timing and changes in cost estimates and additional AROs incurred during the period.
Zakat and income tax
We are subject to the Regulations of the General Authority of Zakat and Tax (GAZT) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Under these regulations, Zakat is payable at 2.5% on the basis of the portion of our Zakat base attributable to our Saudi stockholders, and income tax is payable at 20% on the portion of our taxable income attributable to our non-Saudi stockholders. Zakat and income tax are provided on an accrual basis. Any difference in the estimate is recorded when the final assessment is approved, at which time the provision is cleared.
We account for deferred income taxes on non-Saudi owners utilizing an asset and liability method, whereby deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized based on the tax effects of temporary differences between the financial statements and the income tax basis of assets and liabilities, as measured by the effective tax rate. When appropriate, we evaluate the need for a valuation allowance based on a more likely than not threshold to reduce deferred tax assets to estimated recoverable amounts.
We account for uncertain income tax positions using a threshold and measurement attribute for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. We report tax-related interest and penalties as a component of Zakat and income tax expense. We recognized no material adjustment for unrecognized income tax liabilities.
The Company adopted ASC 606, Revenues from Contracts with Customers, effective January 1, 2019, on a modified retrospective basis, applying the standards to all contracts that are not completed as such date. The Company’s revenues primary consists of sales of copper and zinc. Other than increased disclosures, the adoption of the new guidance did not have an impact on the Company’s revenue recognition.
We sell our products pursuant to individual sales contracts entered into with a customer who acts as an intermediary and resells our products to end users. The Company considers each sales contract to be a single performance obligation, represented by the delivery of a series of distinct goods that are substantially the same, with the same pattern of transfer to the Company's customer. The Company concluded this as, based on the nature of its contracts, the customer receives the benefit of mineral sold as it is shipped per the terms of the commercial invoice at each delivery date. In addition, the Company considers that it has a right to consideration from its customers in an amount that corresponds directly to the value transferred to those customers that being the quantity of mineral delivered at the price per unit delivered. Accordingly, the Company recognizes revenue at the amount to which it has the right to invoice (the invoice practical expedient), as it believes that this method is a faithful depiction of the transfer of goods to its customers.
Revenue is recognized when or as the performance obligations are satisfied, when the Company transfers control of the goods and title passes to the customer. Control is transferred generally upon the completion of loading the material as the point of origin. This is the point which the customer obtains legal title to the product as well as the ability to direct the use of and obtain substantially all the remaining benefits of ownership of the assets.
Sales are recorded based on a provisional sales price or a final sales price calculated in accordance with the terms specified in the relevant sales contract. Under the long-established structure of sales agreements prevalent in the industry, the copper and zinc contained in concentrate is generally “provisionally” priced at the time of shipment. The provisional price received at the time of shipment is later adjusted to a “final” price based on quoted monthly average spot prices on the London Metal Exchange (LME) for a specified future month. We record revenues at the time of shipment (when title and risk of loss pass) based on then-current LME prices, and we account for any changes between the sales price recorded at the time of shipment and subsequent changes in the LME prices through the date of final pricing as gains or losses from a derivative embedded in the sales contract (a futures contract initiated at the date of shipment and settled upon the determination of the “final price”) which is bifurcated and separately accounted for at fair value. The host contract is the sale of the metals contained in the concentrates at the then-current LME price as defined in the contract. Mark-to-market price fluctuations recorded through the settlement date are reflected in revenues for sales contracts. Our embedded derivatives at December 31, 2019 and 2018, were not significant to the financial statements.
Revenues from concentrate sales are recorded net of treatment and refining charges. These allowances are a negotiated term of each contract. Treatment and refining charges represent payments or price adjustments to smelters and refiners and are either fixed, or in certain cases, vary with the price of metals (referred to as price participation).
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. The most significant areas requiring the use of management estimates include mineral reserve estimation; useful asset lives for depreciation and amortization; zakat and income taxes; environmental obligations; reclamation and closure costs; estimates of recoverable materials in mill stockpiles; fair value of embedded derivatives; end-of-service indemnities; and asset impairment, including estimates used to derive future cash flows associated with those assets. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
Recent accounting pronouncements
In February 2016 the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), to increase transparency and comparability among organizations by recognizing all lease transactions (with terms in excess of 12 months) on the balance sheet as a lease liability and a right-of-use asset (as defined). The ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with earlier application permitted. Upon adoption, the lessee will apply the new standard retrospectively to all periods presented or retrospectively using a cumulative effect adjustment in the year of adoption. The Company has several lease agreements for which the amendments will require the Company to recognize a lease liability to make lease payments and a right-of-use asset which will represent its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. As permitted by the amendments, the Company is anticipating electing an accounting policy to not recognize lease assets and lease liabilities for leases with a term of twelve months or less. The Company is currently reviewing the amendments to ensure it is fully compliant by the adoption date and does not expect to early adopt. In addition, the Company will change its current accounting policies to comply with the amendments with such changes as mentioned above.
We have evaluated events and transactions subsequent to the date of the financial statements for matters requiring recognition or disclosure in the financial statements. The accompanying financial statements consider events through March 11, 2020, the date on which the financial statements were available to be issued.
Line items represent financial concepts included in a table. These concepts are used to disclose reportable information associated with domain members defined in one or many axes to the table.
No definition available.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef