SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES||SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Principles of Consolidation – The Consolidated Financial Statements include the balance sheets, statements of operations, stockholders' equity, and cash flows of the Company, TOCCO, TC, SHR, GSPL and PEVM. Other entities which are not controlled but over which the Company has the ability to exercise significant influence are accounted for using the equity method of accounting. All intercompany profits, transactions and balances have been eliminated.
Cash, Cash Equivalents and Short-Term Investments – Our principal banking and short-term investing activities are with local and national financial institutions. Short-term investments with an original maturity of three months or less are classified as cash equivalents.
Inventories – For SHR, finished products and feedstock are recorded at the lower of cost, determined on the first-in, first-out method (FIFO), or market. For TC, inventory is recorded at the lower of cost or market as follows: (1) raw material cost is calculated using the weighted-average cost method and (2) product inventory cost is calculated using the specific cost method.
Trade Receivables and Allowance for Doubtful Accounts – We evaluate the collectability of our trade receivables and adequacy of the allowance for doubtful accounts based upon historical experience and any specific customer financial difficulties of which we become aware. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we decreased the allowance for doubtful accounts balance by $129,000 due to the write off of previously allowed for receivables. For the year ended December 31, 2019, we decreased the balance by $23,000 due to collections of previously allowed for receivables. For the year ended December 31, 2018, we increased the balance by $152,000 due to concerns regarding collectability for a specific customer. We track customer balances and past due amounts to determine if customers may be having financial difficulties. This, along with historical experience and a working knowledge of each customer, helps determine accounts that should be written off. Amounts written off were $129,000, nil and nil in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Discontinued Operations – Assets that are sold or classified as held for sale are classified as discontinued operations provided that the disposal represents a strategic shift that has (or will have) a major effect on our operations and financial results (e.g., a disposal of a major geographical area, a major line of business, a major equity method investment or other major parts of an entity).
Plant, Pipeline and Equipment – Plant, pipeline and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation is provided over the estimated service lives using the straight-line method. Gains and losses from disposition are included in operations in the period incurred. Maintenance and repairs are expensed as incurred. Major renewals and improvements are capitalized.
Interest costs incurred to finance expenditures during construction phase are capitalized as part of the historical cost of constructing the assets. Construction commences with the development of the design and ends when the assets are ready for use. Capitalized interest costs are included in plant, pipeline and equipment and are depreciated over the service life of the related assets.
Labor costs incurred to self-construct assets are capitalized as part of the historical cost the assets. Construction commences with the development of the design and ends when the assets are ready for use. Capitalized labor costs are included in plant, pipeline and equipment and are depreciated over the service life of the related assets.
Platinum catalyst is included in plant, pipeline and equipment at cost. Amortization of the catalyst is based upon cost less estimated salvage value of the catalyst using the straight line method over the estimated useful life (see Note 8).
Leases – The Company enters into leases as a lessee for rail cars, rail equipment, office space and office equipment in the ordinary course of business. When procuring services, or upon entering into a contract, the Company determines whether an arrangement contains a lease at its inception. As part of that evaluation the Company considers whether there is an implicitly or explicitly identified asset in the arrangement and whether the Company, as the lessee, has the right to control the use of that asset. The Company also reviews all options to extend, terminate, or purchase its right-of-use assets at the inception of the lease and accounts for these options when they are reasonably certain of being exercised. All leases with a term of more than 12 months are recognized as right-of-use (“ROU”) assets and associated lease liabilities in the combined balance sheet. Lease liabilities are measured at the lease commencement date and determined using the present value of the lease payments not yet paid, at the Company’s incremental borrowing rate, which approximates the rate at which the Company would borrow on a secured basis. The interest rate implicit in the lease is generally not determinable in the transactions where the Company is the lessee. The ROU asset equals the lease liability adjusted for any initial direct costs, prepaid rent and lease incentives.
All of the Company’s leases are classified as operating leases. The leases include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option. The Company made a policy election to not recognize leases with a lease term of 12 months or less in the combined balance sheet. Lease expense for these leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets – Goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets are tested for impairment at least annually; however, these tests are performed more frequently when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset may be impaired. Impairment exists when carrying value exceeds fair value. Estimates of fair value are based on appraisals, market prices for comparable assets, or internal estimates of future net cash flows.
Definite-lived intangible assets consist of customer relationships, licenses, permits and developed technology. The majority of these assets are being amortized using discounted estimated future cash flows over the term of the related agreements. Intangible assets associated with customer relationships are being amortized using the discounted estimated future cash flows method based upon assumed rates of annual customer attrition. We continually evaluate the reasonableness of the useful lives of these assets. Once these assets are fully amortized, they will be removed from the consolidated balance sheets.
During 2019 we adopted new accounting guidance and removed the second step of the goodwill impairment test. Under step two, an entity was required to determine the fair value of individual assets and liabilities of a reporting unit (including unrecognized assets and liabilities) using the procedure for determining fair values in a business combination. As a result, goodwill impairment is now measured at the amount by which a reporting unit’s carrying amount exceeds its fair value, with any impairment charge limited to the carrying amount of goodwill.
Business Combinations and Related Business Acquisition Costs – Assets and liabilities associated with business acquisitions are recorded at fair value using the acquisition method of accounting. We allocate the purchase price of acquisitions based upon the fair value of each component which may be derived from various observable and unobservable inputs and assumptions. We may use third-party valuation specialists to assist us in this allocation. Initial purchase price allocations are preliminary and subject to revision within the measurement period, not to exceed one year from the date of acquisition. The fair value of property, plant and equipment and intangible assets are based upon the discounted cash flow method that involves inputs that are not observable in the market (Level 3). Goodwill assigned represents the amount of consideration transferred in excess of the fair value assigned to identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed.
Business acquisition costs are expensed as incurred and are reported as general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of income. We define these costs to include finder’s fees, advisory, legal, accounting, valuation, and other professional consulting fees, as well as, travel associated with the evaluation and effort to acquire specific businesses.
Investment in AMAK – Prior to the completion of the sale of our ownership interest in AMAK, we accounted for our investment in AMAK using the equity method of accounting under which we recorded in income our share of AMAK’s income or loss for each period. The amount recorded was also adjusted to reflect the amortization of certain differences between the basis in our investment in AMAK and our share of the net assets of AMAK was reflected in AMAK’s financial statements (see Note 6). Any proceeds received from or payments made to AMAK were recorded as decreases or increases in the balance of our investment.
Other Assets – Other assets include a license used in specialty petrochemicals operations, spare parts inventory, insurance receivables and certain specialty petrochemicals assets. Spare parts are accounted for using FIFO.
Long-Lived Assets Impairment – Long-lived assets are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable based on the undiscounted net cash flows to be generated from the asset’s use. The amount of the impairment loss to be recorded is calculated by the excess of the asset’s carrying value over its fair value. Fair value is generally determined using a discounted cash flow analysis although other factors including the state of the economy are considered.
Revenue Recognition – Revenue is measured based on a consideration specified in a contract with a customer. The Company recognizes revenue when it satisfies a performance obligation by transferring control over a product or service to a customer. In evaluating when a customer has control of the asset we primarily consider whether the transfer of legal title and physical delivery has occurred, whether the customer has significant risks and rewards of ownership, and whether the customer has accepted delivery and a right to payment exists. Taxes assessed by a governmental authority that are both imposed on and concurrent with a specific revenue-producing transaction, that are collected by the Company from a customer, are excluded from revenue. Shipping and handling costs associated with outbound freight after control over a product has transferred to a customer are accounted for as a fulfillment cost and are included in cost of product sales and processing. The Company does not offer material rights of return or service-type warranties.
The following is a description of principal activities – separated by reportable segments – from which the Company generates its revenue. For more detailed information about reportable segments, disaggregation of revenues, and contract balance disclosures, see Note 17.
Specialty Petrochemicals segment
The Specialty Petrochemicals segment of the Company produces eight high purity hydrocarbons and other petroleum based products including isopentane, normal pentane, isohexane and hexane. These products are used in the production of polyethylene, packaging, polypropylene, expandable polystyrene, poly-iso/urethane foams, crude oil from the Canadian tar sands, and in the catalyst support industry. SHR’s specialty petrochemicals products are typically transported to customers by rail car, tank truck, iso-container and ship.
Product Sales – The Company sells individual (distinct) products to its customers on a stand-alone basis (point-of-sale) without any further integration. There is no significant modification of any one or more products sold to fulfill another promised product or service within any of the Company’s product sale transactions. The amount of consideration received for product sales is stated within the executed invoice with the customer. Payment for prime product sales is typically due and collected 30 to 60 days subsequent to point of sale.
Processing Fees – The Company’s services consist of processing customer supplied feedstocks into custom products including, if requested, services for forming, packaging, and arranging shipping. Pursuant to Tolling Agreements the customer retains title to the feedstocks and processed products. The performance obligation in each Tolling Agreement transaction is the processing of customer provided feedstocks into custom products and is satisfied over time. The amount of consideration received for product sales is stated within the executed invoice with the customer. Payment is typically due and collected within 30 days subsequent to point of sale.
Specialty Waxes segment
The Specialty Waxes segment of the Company manufactures and sells specialty polyethylene and poly alpha olefin waxes and also provides custom processing services for customers.
Product Sales – The Company sells individual (distinct) products to its customers on a stand-alone basis (point-of-sale) without any further integration. There is no significant modification of any one or more products sold to fulfill another promised product or service within any of the Company’s product sale transactions. The amount of consideration received for product sales is stated within the executed invoice with the customer. Payment is typically due and collected within 30 days subsequent to point of sale.
Processing Fees – The Company’s promised services consist of processing customer supplied feedstocks into custom products including, if requested, services for forming, packaging, and arranging shipping. Pursuant to Tolling Agreements and Purchase Order Arrangements, the customer typically retains title to the feedstocks and processed products. The
performance obligation in each Tolling Agreement transaction and Purchase Order Arrangement is the processing of customer provided feedstocks into custom products and is satisfied over time. The amount of consideration received for product sales is stated within the executed invoice with the customer. Payment is typically due and collected within 30 days subsequent to point of sale.
Shipping and Handling Costs – Shipping and handling costs are classified as cost of product sales and processing and are expensed as incurred.
Retirement Plan – We offer employees the benefit of participating in a 401(k) plan. We match 100% up to 6% of pay with vesting occurring over 2 years. For years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, matching contributions of approximately $1,271,000, $1,321,000, and $1,502,000, respectively, were made on behalf of employees.
Environmental Liabilities – Remediation costs are accrued based on estimates of known environmental remediation exposure. Ongoing environmental compliance costs, including maintenance and monitoring costs, are expensed as incurred.
Other Liabilities – We periodically make changes in or expand our custom processing units at the request of the customer. The cost to make these changes is shared by the customer. Upon completion of a project a note receivable and a deferred liability are recorded to recover the project costs which are then capitalized. At times instead of a note receivable being established, the customer pays an upfront cost. The amortization of other liabilities is recorded as a reduction to depreciation expense over the life of the contract with the customer. As of December 31 of each year, depreciation expense was offset and reduced by approximately $0.8 million, $0.8 million, and $0.8 million, for 2020, 2019, and 2018, respectively.
Net Income Per Share – We compute basic income per common share based on the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding. Diluted income per common share is computed based on the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding plus the number of additional common shares that would have been outstanding if potential dilutive common shares, consisting of stock options, unvested restricted stock units, and shares which could be issued upon conversion of debt, had been issued (see Note 18).
Foreign Currency – The functional currency for the Company and each of the Company’s subsidiaries is the US dollar (USD). Transaction gains or losses as a result of transactions denominated and settled in currencies other than the USD are reflected in the statements of income as foreign exchange transaction gains or losses. We do not employ any practices to minimize foreign currency risks. The functional and reporting currency of AMAK is the Saudi Riyal (SR). In June 1986 the SR was officially pegged to the USD at a fixed exchange rate of 1 USD to 3.75 SR; therefore, we translate SR into our reporting currency of the USD for income statement and balance sheet purposes using the fixed exchange rate. As of December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, foreign currency translation adjustments were not significant.
Management Estimates – The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Significant estimates include allowance for doubtful accounts receivable and inventory obsolescence; assessment of impairment of our long-lived assets and intangible assets; litigation liabilities, post-retirement benefit obligations, guarantee obligations, environmental liabilities, and current and deferred income taxes. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
In early 2020, the World Health Organization declared the rapidly spreading coronavirus disease (“COVID-19”) outbreak a pandemic. This pandemic has resulted in governments worldwide enacting emergency measures to combat the spread of the virus. The Company considered the impact of COVID-19 on the assumptions and estimates used and determined that there were no material adverse impacts on the Company’s results of operations and financial position at December 31, 2020. The Company is not aware of any specific event or circumstance that would require an update to its estimates or judgments or a revision of the carrying value of its assets or liabilities as of the date of issuance of the financial statements. These estimates may change, as new events occur and additional information is obtained.
Share-Based Compensation – We recognize share-based compensation of stock options granted based upon the fair value of options on the grant date using the Black-Scholes pricing model (see Note 15). Share-based compensation expense recognized during the period is based on the fair value of the portion of share-based payments awards that is ultimately expected to vest. Share-based compensation expense recognized in the consolidated statements of operations for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018 includes compensation expense based on the estimated grant date fair value for awards that are ultimately expected to vest, and accordingly has been reduced for estimated forfeitures. Estimated forfeitures at the time of grant are revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates.
Fair Value – The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents, trade receivables, taxes receivable, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, and other liabilities approximate fair value due to the immediate or short-term maturity of these financial instruments. The fair value of variable rate long term debt and notes payable reflect recent market transactions and approximate carrying value. We used other observable inputs that would qualify as Level 2 inputs to make our assessment of the approximate fair value of our cash and cash equivalents, trade receivables, taxes receivable, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, other liabilities, notes payable and variable rate long term debt.
We measure fair value by ASC Topic 820 Fair Value. ASC Topic 820 defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value, and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. ASC Topic 820 applies to reported balances that are required or permitted to be measured at fair value under existing accounting pronouncements; accordingly, the standard amends numerous accounting pronouncements but does not require any new fair value measurements of reported balances. ASC Topic 820 emphasizes that fair value, among other things, is based on exit price versus entry price, should include assumptions about risk such as nonperformance risk in liability fair values, and is a market-based measurement, not an entity-specific measurement. When considering the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability, ASC Topic 820 establishes a fair value hierarchy that distinguishes between market participant assumptions based on market data obtained from sources independent of the reporting entity (observable inputs that are classified within Levels 1 and 2 of the hierarchy) and the reporting entity’s own assumptions about market participant assumptions (unobservable inputs classified within Level 3 of the hierarchy). The fair value hierarchy prioritizes inputs used to measure fair value into three broad levels.
In instances where the determination of the fair value measurement is based on inputs from different levels of the fair value hierarchy, the level in the fair value hierarchy within which the entire fair value measurement falls is based on the lowest level input that is significant to the fair value measurement in its entirety. Our assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires judgment and considers factors specific to the asset or liability.
Income Taxes – Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. The Company maintains a valuation allowance for a deferred tax asset when it is deemed to be more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax asset will not be realized.
Our estimate of the potential outcome of any uncertain tax issues is subject to management’s assessment of relevant risks, facts, and circumstances existing at that time. We use a more likely than not threshold for financial statement recognition and measurement of tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. To the extent that our assessment of such tax position changes, the change in estimate is recorded in the period in which the determination is made. We report tax-related interest and penalties as a component of income tax expense.
Subsequent Events – The Company has evaluated subsequent events through March 9, 2021, the date that the Consolidated Financial Statements were approved by management.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
Effective January 1, 2020, we adopted Financial Accounting Standard Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which changed the way entities recognize impairment of most financial assets. Short-term and long-term financial assets, as defined by the standard, are impacted by immediate recognition of estimated credit losses in the financial statements, reflecting the net amount expected to be collected. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements Not Yet Adopted
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes (ASU 2019-12), which simplifies the accounting for income taxes. This guidance will be effective for us in the first quarter of 2021 on a prospective basis, and early adoption is permitted. The Company does not expect that the adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020–04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting (ASU 2020-04), which provides guidance to alleviate the burden in accounting for reference rate reform by allowing certain expedients and exceptions in applying generally accepted accounting principles to contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions impacted by reference rate reform. The provisions of ASU 2020-04 apply only to those transactions that reference LIBOR or another reference rate expected to be discontinued due to reference rate reform. This guidance is effective from March 12, 2020 through December 31, 2022 and adoption is optional. We are currently evaluating the impact of ASU 2020-04 on our Consolidated Financial Statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef